Studies carried out by the research group:
1. a) "People in the Countryside in 1995".
A survey of rural people in Võru county and farmers in Tartu county
b) the main subthemes: * fields of activities of rural people; * opportunities and obstacles in local development; * attitudes toward entrepreneurship,possibilities and obstacles; * counselling and training needs, possibilities and obstacles; * exposure to the media channels and attitudes toward these; * life quality (health, material wellbeing,living conditions, spare time, etc.); * machinary and equipment at the disposal of farmers * psychological specifics and value orientations of country people; * problems related to local and mass culture (local habits, language, favorite authors, etc.); * human relations, problems of morals; * attitudes toward political institutions, politics in general and rural politicy.
c) 790 variables d) three different samples were studied with the same questionnaire: * 308 people were polled in the town of Antsla and in the rural municipalities of Antsla, Varstu and Vastseliina in Võru county according to a random sample. The sample was drawn in the local munici- palities on the basis of the files on local resi- dents. The sample is representative with regard to all main socio-demographic indicators. * In addition 176 more active and enterprising peo- ple or the local elite were surveyed in the same localities plus the rural municipalities of Mere- mäe and Urvaste. The sample was drawn with the help of local authorities. * With the help of the Tartu Farmers Union 85 farmers were studied in Tartu county.
e) the surveys were carried out in August 1995 in Voru county and in September in Tartu county. f) the research was financed by the Estonian Science Found- ation and the Development Center of Võru county.
g) The preliminary results are available in manuscript reports; the following publications are being prepared:
Margus Paas."The Estonian Rural Society and Cooperation" about cooperative activities in Estonia, conference materials. Margus Paas."Estonian Rural Society Between Collectivism and Cooperation", published by the University of Tampere A book under a likely title of "Estonian Rural Popu- lation:myths and the reality" is being compiled.
2 a) "Estonian Private Forests and Their Owners 1995"
A survey of owners of private forests and legal sub- jects who are authorized to use forests. . b) The main subthemes:
* the state of Estonian private forests; * previous activities of forest owners; * their attitudes, future plans and expectations * attitudes toward forest-specific legislation and institutions; * forest maintenance works; * timber use from private forests; * needs for training, counselling, and credits; * need and readiness for cooperation; * problems connected with timber sales; * forests and nature
c) 450 variables
d) 301 people were surveyed. 119 of these were forest owners, 101 legal subjects, and 81 forest users on the basis of the Farmers` Law. The sample was drawn partially at the Estonian Forest Regulation Center ( the forest owners and users) and partially in local municipalities (legal subjects).
e) The survey was conducted in all rural municipalities of Lääne-Viru, Lääne, Järva, Hiiu, Saare, and Võru counties in October and November 1995.
f) The study was ordered by a researh group involved in working out Estonian forest policy and was financed by the Finnish forest research and conscelling firm "Indufor OY".
g) The results are available to the customers and have been published in the press.
3. a) "The Common Ideas of Estonian Country People 1994".
A postal survey of the representatives of rural munici- palities, delegates to the Congress of country people.
b) The main research topics.
* the economic life in Estonian rural municipal- ities; opportunities and obstacles; * politics: the opinions about the political parties and their leaders; * cooperation:attitudes, opportunities and obstac- les; * Etonian village:the spheres of activities and the social status of people; * training and counselling: needs, spheres, possi- bilities and obstacles; * problems of land:ownership relations, land reform; * psychological and cultural identity, value attitudes; * attitudes toward the Estonian Land Charta.
c) 860 variables.
d) The sample: In September 1994 three questionnaires were sent to all Estonian rural municipalities ( in total 624 questionnaires) for handing on to the delegates of the Congress of country people or to people replacing them. The data were collected by a postal survey. 208 questionnaires were returned rather evenly from the whole country. As a rule each municipality sent three persons to the Congress, one of whom represented the farmers, the other enterprises and the third one local government.
e) The respondents were elected to the Congress from all rural municipalities and can be considered the leaders of local opinion. Relying upon their expert help the research also embraced villages and cooperative enterprises. The data were gathered in September and October 1994.
f) Financiers: The Estonian Ministry of Agriculture and the Land Office.
g) The research materials are in the form of manuscripts and are available to everybody who is interested in them. They have been used in teaching the students, in compiling the development programs for the Uuniversity of Agriculture and the Land Charta, in preparing and carrying out the Congress of country people, as well as by the State Assembly and the Ministry of Agriculture.
4.a) "Summer 1994. Who We Are and Where We Go?".
A survey of the people in the town of Põltsamaa and in six neighborhood rural municipalities. 208 respondents, 877 variables.
b) The basic research items: * the economic life: opportunities and obstacles, entrepreneurship etc.; * life quality (coping, the infrastructure, spheres of activity, human relations, etc); * culture, traditions, mode of life, religion; * politics, the opinions about the political parties and their leaders; * psychological and cultural identity, value attiudes; * the progress of reforms; * machinary: availability, state ...; * money:attitude,dealings, etc.
c) 877 variables.
d) The residents of the town of Põltsamaa and the rural municipalities of Imavere, Poltsamaa, Kolga-Jaani, Puurmani, Koigi, and Pajusi were polled. In total 210 persons were polled. The sample was drawn by using the files of the inhabitants of the town of Põltsamaa and the rural municipalities. 30 people at the age of 15 - 74 were polled in all rural municipalities as well as in Põltsamaa. One third of the respondents were farmers, another third entrepreneurs or workers or employees in some enterprise, and the remaining third represented the other fields of activities.
e) The survey was carried out in August 1994 in the above mentioned administrative units.
f) Financiers: The Ministry of Agriculture, various institutes of the University of Agriculture and the researchers themselves.
g) Publications: * Margus Paas."Sociological research data about the changes in Estonian rural life". A collection of research works of the University of Agriculture No 180, the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences. Tartu 1995, pp.167 - 174. * Argo Moor and Ene Lukka have written their master`s theses and Aare Kasemets and Margus Paas diploma papers on the basis on the results of this research. * Research materials in the shape of manuscripts have been available to all people who are interested in these problems.
5 a) The express survey of the delegates to the Congress of Estonian country people.
Current opinions of the repre- sentatives of country people.
b) Research items: the situation of the rural munici- palities, attitudes toward actual problems,the atmosphere in the Congress hall, information about the Congress in the press.
c) 32 variables. About 100 newspaper articles.
d) Qualitative data were gathered by means of a question- naire. Each delegate was given a questionnaire. 463 questionnaires or 69 percent were returned.
e) The data were gathered at the Congress of Estonian country people on March 3 - 4, 1994.
f) Financier: the Ministry of Agriculture. The study was ordered by the organizing committee of the congress.
g) The findings have been published in a report that was also sent to the Estonian government organs and top officials.
6 a) "How are you getting on, country people?". A survey of the inhabitants of Käru municipality in Rapla county.
b) the main research items: * economic life: opportunities and obstacles, entre- preneurship,etc.; * life quality: coping, infrastructure, fields of activities, human relations...; * culture, traditions, mode of life, religion...; * psychological and cultural identity, value atti- tudes, etc.
c) 144 variables.
d) A random sample of the inhabitants of the Käru muni- cipality in Rapla county. 108 interviews.
e) August 1993.The rural municipality of Käru in Rapla county.
f) Financed by research sums and supported by the Canadian entrepreneur Olaf Klaassen.
7. April 1993.
A study of students` opinions. Attitudes toward the studies, university teachers and the University of Agriculture. Students` attitudes and value orientations. A follow-up study. 757 variables, 549 respondents.
8 August 1992.
A survey of the inhabitants of the munici- pality of Paide. 100 interviews, 660 variables. Items: economic life, life quality, culture, etc.
The data of the following studies are being restored:
9 August 1990.
Estonian country life in the changing conditions. A survey of the work age people of the Kanepi collective farm in Põlva county. Attitudes toward the changes in the Estonian society and adaptation to these, expectations, the mode of life, etc.
10. The problems of our work and life.
Carried out by the research group on rural sociology at the Institute of Economics in 1984.
11. What should be done?
The chair of philosophy at the Uni- versity of Agriculture and the sector of agricultural economics at the Institute of Economics. 1982, Tartu.
12. Rural life 1978. 433 respondents, 232 variables.
2) The potential customers can use the data files or their parts on the basis of mutual written agreement. Outside this the use of data is regulated by the copyright laws. If possible, it would be welcome if the years-long work and efforts could be compensated at least by a symbolic sum or subsidy.
3) Current research:
Preparation of the follow-up study to the 1994 survey of the representatives of rural municipalities. The study is ordered by the Ministry of the Protection of En- vironment. There is under way cooperation in the framework of the World Bank research project "Social assessment: Agri culture and Forestry Project" in the course of which researchers received training in the field of action sociology methods. Several joint seminars were held, modern research methods studied, potential loan receivers were interviewed and counselled in connection with main- aining the existing land improvement systems, and a joint project for loan application was compiled. For the World Bank there has also been put together background information " About the cooperation, needs and possibilities for the application of new technology and needs for a loan in connection of this". There are plans to conduct so called case studies in the studied localities which foresee the introduction of hitherto research results , the attainment of feedback information in the course of discussions as well as the discussion of innovative programs, the collection of new comprehensive data, etc.
4) The computer programs used by the research group are quite modern. An opportunity for e-mail and Internet communication will become a reality during the next months. However,the data can be transferred by e-mail already at the present time. The transfer is also possible on the disks.